In Egypt: Prehistoric Sinai Inscriptions, Citadels discovery reveals Pharaonic, Persian military camps

Pre-historic homes found in oasis
An Italian excavation team succeeded in unearthing a number of archaeological finds in an area called the “hidden valley” in the Oasis of Farafra.
They unearthed some residential buildings and quarries dating back to the Stone Age.

Rectangular constructions built on a steep mud base were unearthed while the walls were built of millstone. Some red cooking ovens were found inside the constructions, demonstrating that the ovens were once in use a long time. The remains of sheep and cattle were found inside these ovens.

The expedition also discovered work-shops for making stone instruments, also finding tools in the form of blades, arrowheads, pick axes and even screw drivers, eroded from usage.

Alongside these workshops were found a number of factories specializing in jewellery made from ostrich eggs. They found a number of necklaces and bracelets all made from Ostrich eggs. Remnants of ostrich eggs were found themselves, covered in patterns consisting of parallel lines.

Chief of the expedition says that these discoveries prove the presence of Bedouin tribes, populating such areas, in the pre-historic eras.

Pre-historic inscriptions found in Sinai

The Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA) expedition, that surveys the South Sinai region, discovered many inscriptions in the Sinai valleys.

In the process pre-historic inscriptions were found, in addition to Coptic and early Arab inscriptions. Greek and early Christian inscriptions were found also.

1- Wadi Al-Rusys, 67 km from Ras Sidr. In this valley, an inscription was found shaped like a woman. Another that of a camel ridden by a man. Another image was found of a cross.

This leads to speculation that this place was used for religious purposes.

 2- Wadi al-Siaa, l0 km from Wadi Al- Rusys, contains Coptic inscriptions on red granite stone, words and animal signs of a religious nature.

 3- Wadi Al-Maktab contains granite stones inscribed with Coptic writing and early Christian and early Arabic in Kufi style.

4- Wadi al-Maghara, one of the most famous in South Sinai, in the vicinity of Abur Ridis. Its history goes back to pre-historic times, in addition to Pharaonic and Coptic inscriptions. There are drawings of Pharaonic kings during their victories.

5- Wadi Asla, at the opening of this valley, there are old Coptic inscriptions of camels and deer.

6- Wadi Hiran contains 18 stones with rare inscriptions.

7- Wadi Tiwayba begins from the Egyptian Naqb desert, made up of mountains of sandstone and volcanic rock.

The most distinguished feature of this Wadi is the old Coptic inscriptions, consisting of drawings of animals and people. There are also Greek to and Kufi Arabic writings, dating back to the 2nd and 3rd Hijrah centuries.

The team registered everything there in preparation for a catalogue that will cover these remains that will highlight their historical importance.

Citadels discovery reveals Pharaonic, Persian military camps

Three citadels have been uncovered recently on the old Horus military route at Qantara Sharq, Sinai.

The site of the find currently known as Tel Habwa is 30 kilometers east of the Suez Canal. In ancient times it was known as the city of Tharo.

The existence of three fortresses, each built on the remains of the other underlines, the significance of Tharo as the eastern gateway to the Nile valley.

The old Horus route and its fortifications are inscribed on the walls of Al-Karnak Temple in Luxor representing the trip of King Seti I following his return from a military mission to secure Egypt’s eastern borders.

The inscriptions reveal features of the route, including 11 citadels in the distance between Qantara Sark and Rafah.

Two of the unearthed citadels go back to the Pharaonic age while the third belongs to the Persian age.

The first citadel dates back to the age of the Hyksos (1603-1567 BC). Within the walls of the citadel there were found houses, store- houses, furnaces, and human remains, pottery from Cyprus and pottery from the age of the Hyksos.

The second citadel dates back to the New Kingdom in the 18th and 19th dynasties. The citadel was built on the remains of a Hyksos citadel, following the war waged against them by Ahmos.

The third citadel of the Persian age (341-332) was found to have no towers. Excavations unearthed pottery segments of the Persian age.

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